Sunday, May 24, 2020
In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world one of the growing debates is the legalization of marijuana. Nowadays people use Ã¢â¬Å"weedÃ¢â¬ for many different purposes. Whether it be for medical or even recreational weed has become a part of this world. The government in the USA keeps fighting this natural product and destroying lives on account of this drug. It has been proven to be even better than alcohol and many other things in this world. Weed being a natural product has many advantages and disadvantages but the good outweighs the bad. Marijuana is not as harmful to the body as other intoxicants like alcohol, cigarettes and many more. It has never caused death or cancer. Marijuana is a stimulant to the human body. As said on telegraph.com about fifteen-thousand deathsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Agencies could be made to regulate and distribute the drug, which in turn would create more jobs. It could help boost the economy because of such high demand. Also, there would be jobs for farmers to grow the product and then in turn sell to other countries such as the Netherlands. It also does not cost a lot to grow and take care of meaning the prices would be stable. The police could also divert their resources to other things such as bigger crimes like murder, theft and others. The theft rate would also go down because drug dealers would not need to steal from each other. Marijuana not being legalized is also a form of intruding on every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personal freedom. America is a country that others look at as having the most freedom. Marijuana cannot harm others and I believe it is up to an individual as to what they do with their body. Personal freedom is also intruded on by keeping marijuana illegal. Ã¢â¬Å"You cant legislate morality when people disagree about whats considered moral.Ã¢â¬ Even if the drug is shown to be harmful, isnt it the right of every person to choose what harms him or her? (balancedpolitics.org 3). People can actually fight the government for them not holding to the constitution. Not legalizing weed could bring around a revolt in extreme cases. Street justice related drug disputes pertaining to marijuana would be reduced. There is no way of the opposing drug dealers to just callShow MoreRelatedShould We Legalize Marijuana? Essay1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDrugs, we all have come across some type of drug in our lives whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s legal or not. There is a massive amount of drugs being used daily for medical reasons, some being used to treat multiple conditions at once. Though drugs play an important role in the medical field today and are being prescribed more and more by doctors, there are those consumers that abuse the use of these drugs. That brings into question if the legalization of certain drugs should be considered or if it is best to keep themRead MoreEssay on Why we should not legalize marijuana?1976 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Marijuana has been used as an agent for achieving euphoria since ancient times (Narconon International, p. 1, para. 1). It was used in early Chinese culture as a medical component since as early as 2737 B.C (Narconon International, p. 1, para. 1). Its use began to spread across the pacific culture and finally ended up in Europe around 500 A.D. (Narconon International, p. 1). It was believed in this early culture to have medical effects that helped with rheumatism, gout, malaria, and even absentRead MoreEssay about Should We Legalize Marijuana in Canada?1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTo Legalize or to Not Legalize: The Debate Behind Marijuana in Canada The legalization of marijuana is an issue that consistently discussed and debated, not only in North America, but throughout the entire world. Despite being illegal in every country, marijuana remains the most widely used illicit drug in the world. The popularity of this drug is the cause for the continuous legalization debate, resulting in various legislations pertaining to the consumption of the substance. Every country hasRead MoreEssay on Research on Legalizing Marijuana1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLegalize It Lobdell 1 Legalize It Legalizing Marijuana has been a controversial and extremely volatile topic ever since the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. Many people hold strong beliefs regarding this topic and the subsequent laws that have been passed in certain states for the use of the recreational drug. However, marijuana is not just a recreational drug, but has many different wonderful medical purposes for the American people. Marijuana should be legalized for recreational and medical purposes throughout this countryRead MoreAll My Life I Have Heard Just Say No To Drugs. You Hear1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdangerous and should be used just for pleasure. That goes the same for prescribed drugs that are not yours. As for the case of marijuana, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree. I think marijuana is no more dangerous f than drinking or smoking regular cigarettes. I see marijuana as a recreational drug. A drug that is legal in some states and not in others sounds crazy to me. Just as we had, prohibition with alcohol will have with marijuana but I see it as a losing battle. I for one will be happy when marijuana is legal inRead MoreWhy Marijuana Is The Best For Us As Americans?951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages smoking marijuana may seem harmless to some, and some may say its only marijuana. With marijuana there are many hidden dangers to the street form. Drug dealers mix it with chemicals as well as other illegal drugs to make people addicted. They even mix it with dangerous chemicals such as rat poison. This happened to a man in the next town over from where I live in Altamont Illinois. His name was Jordan Kull. Heowed the man money ,and the man mixed a poison in it .Jordan passed away as a resultRead MoreEssay on The Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Topic of Legalizing Marijuana has been a very conversational argumentative issue in the American society; moreover in the American politics today. There are many good arguments on why Marijuana should be Legalize and my argument is based on facts and supporting details to prove why Marijuana should be legalize. The Legalization of Marijuana would be profitable to our government and economy, according to Evan Wood who is the founder of the International Centre for Science in Drug Policy; The URead MoreMarijuana Should Be Legalized Essay929 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMarijuan a Should Be Legalized. Drugs are a major influential force in our country today. The problem has gotten so out of hand that many options are being considered to control it or solve it. One of the most controversial issues facing our generation is if we should legalize marijuana. Usually, people do not know a great deal about marijuana they just considered it as any other drug. There is one thing people should know is that marijuana is not like the others drugs such as heroine or cocaineRead MoreDrugs: Drug Addiction and Domino Effect1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOne Nation Under Drugs This problem has been going on for decades and still going on till this day. Should the U.S legalize every drug, would that be the answer? Do we continue with this twenty-five year plus war with drugs. The use of illicit drugs is illegal because of their intoxicating effects on the brain, damaging impact on the body, adverse impact on behavior, and potential for abuse.Ã Their use threatens the health, welfare, and safety of all people, of users and non-users alike. I am againstRead MoreLegalization of medical marijuana at the federal law Essay1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Why should marijuana be legalized? Marijuana can be argued for different reasons. In my case I will be arguing the medical purposes for legalizing marijuana. Marijuana has positive features, and how people prefer using marijuana. Marijuana helps individuals get through a variety of things that they suffer. Marijuana provides relief from pain, rather than other medications out there. Many individuals prefer marijuana over anything else to relax. An argument on why people using marijuana spend more
Thursday, May 14, 2020
To the world today, a hero is someone distinguished by exceptional courage, nobility, or strength; but really, anyone can be a hero. A hero can vary from someone as well-known as George Washington to someone as unheard of as anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s very own mother. Someone who has done a good deed for someone else is hero. The biggest heroes are the ones in well-known books and plays, such as Odysseus from The Odyssey, or have made a huge difference in the history of this world, like Mahatma Gandhi. Siddhartha Gautama is a hero, but not in the same way Odysseus or Gandhi are. Although these three influential people went through different journeys in order to accomplish different things, they are all heroes in their own way and have been through the sameÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦At the conclusion of his journey, Odysseus is a better person, having conquered his own mental restraints, and he returns home to use his new self-understanding of being a better king, husband, father, and son. O n the other hand, the journey of Siddhartha Gautama was spiritual, and he also met with several obstacles and crises. He had a family and had never seen the sickly, elderly, or dead before, and when he did, he immediately began to try to discover how to overcome suffering. The journey of Mahatma Gandhi was also spiritual. He was very faithful to God and his own country, even after facing so many troubles. He freed India from the British without the use of violence. Odysseus faced several obstacles and went through many tests on his way home from the Trojan War. OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ first obstacleÃ¢â¬âthe Island of the CiconesÃ¢â¬âwas because of his greed. He stopped here to raid it for supplies, and him and his men looted a lot of goods and split it amongst themselves. In spite of this, they were greedy, which compelled them to stay in town and collect every last bit they can; however, the Cicones attacked on horseback and killed 72 of OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ men. From this obstacle, he learns not to be greedy in victory. One of his most difficult trials was when he encountered the Island of the Cyclopes. He and his men found a CyclopsÃ¢â¬â¢ cave; however, they were trapped inside of it by Polyphemus, the Cyclops. (Necessary) Ã¯Æ' Odysseus could notShow MoreRelatedDefining the Tragic Hero Essay632 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA tragic hero is the main character in a tragedy story. He is the main theme. He is the source behind the main issues of the plot and some major points maybe cleared by observing his actions and nature. The tragic hero is always larger than life, a person of action whose decisions determine the fate of others. He is a man who is superior then the average person, a character of noble stature and greatness. Though the tragic hero is pre-eminently great, he is not perfect. Otherwise, the audienceRead MoreDefining a Hero in Shakespeares Macbeth1308 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdefines a tragic hero, he or she may claim that it is a hero of high class that possesses unprecedented courage and exceedingly strength; thus, a hero who also suffers a calamity of their own downfall and ultimate death through their tragic flaw. Their downfall not only causes infliction on oneself, but also inflicts the society. This can be seen and heavily stressed through William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy, Macbeth. In his play, the reader comes across Macbeth, a noble and honorable hero, wh o ranks highlyRead More Defining Heroism - What Makes a True Hero? Essay857 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis point of view can best be explained using three key points of focus. These points are as follows: The similarity of a higher guidance in times of need, the similarity of the code of honor that they live by, and the fact that no matter who the hero is, he or she is under pressure to be a successful role model. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The similarity of higher guidance in times of need is the easiest and most direct of all the three factors. Most heroes, but not all, live their lives in allegiance to God or anotherRead MoreWho Is A Hero?928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWho Defines a Hero? A hero can be a hard thing to define. There are so many defining qualities in a hero that it is a vague term. Go around and ask what people feel are the defining qualities of their hero and their answer could be vastly different from the person with who chose the same hero. But, people can give a generally idea of what a hero should be. But what are those qualities that people consider heroic? These qualities that a hero has can be hard to come by but it can be found in any personRead MoreJohn Milton s Paradise Lost985 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJohn MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Paradise Lost is a paradox of morality and character definitions. After reading multiple articles, the largest concerning topic was the hero status of an inherently evil character. The issue lies within defining what a hero is and is not in terms of epic poetry. John MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to clarify a hero shows this paradox he has created is a something that he meant to achieve. According to Mary Nyquist in The Father s Wo rd/Satan s Wrath, Ã¢â¬Å"The text seems here not just to invite, butRead MoreDefining Heroes Throughout The Hobbit, Of Mice And Men And I Am Malala887 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDefining a Hero: Ã¢â¬Å"A hero is a person who, in the face of danger and adversity or from a position of weakness, displays courage or self-sacrifice for some greater good.Ã¢â¬ As one reflects on the basic definition of heroes and the idea of heroism, this basic thought may be used. However, one could consider that there is no one universal definition for what a certain person may believe to be heroic. Looking at different people or characters and their lives, there are various defining aspects that makeRead MoreOrdinary People: The Heroes Among Us Essay717 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesstatus quo and modern definition of a true hero. For decades adolescent children around the world have been conditioned to mentally define the word hero as it relates to comic characters. Comic publications such as Marvel Comics and competitor D.C. Comics have created cape wielding, web casting, and morphing characters that often transpose the understanding of what makes a true hero. In addition to comics, television has played a part in defining a hero by shows such as; James CameronÃ¢â¬â¢s productionRead MoreHbo : Sports And Sports1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesabout why they love sports. Sports Illustrated, Endgame entertainment, and HBO asked Americans why different games and memorable moments in sports touched their lives. Thousands of fans responded with their incredible stories (Sport in America: Our Defining Stories). The film shows personal stories from fans across the country who have witnessed sports most extraordinary events. The film tells the world about memorable events in American sports, such as baseball, tennis, football, hockey, boxing, basketballRead MoreSports : Sports And Sports1092 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesabout why they love sports. Sports Illustrated, Endgame entertainment, and HBO asked Americans why different games and memorable moments in sports touched their lives. Thousands of fans responded with their incredible stories (Sport in America: Our Defining Stories). The film shows personal stories from fans across the country who have witnessed sports most extraordinary events. The film tells the world about memorable events in American sports, such as baseball, tennis, football, hockey, boxing, basketballRead MoreUnsung Hero Essay715 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUnsung Hero Defining the word hero is difficult. The dictionary states that a hero is any person admired for courage, nobility, or exploits, especially in war. For most people, the definition of hero is left to interpretation. Some people believe a hero is an exceptional athlete, but others think it is the local cop that made the news for a job well done. It is all up to the individual who is defining what a hero is. Jan Karski is a hero for several reasons; he proved to be courageous, demonstrated
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Race, racism, and the American legal system grew up together. Racism and racially exclusive practices in elite law schools have more politically significant consequences than racism in public accommodations like restaurants. The construction of race and racist hierarchy was used as a political tool by white elites to justify the exploitation of human beings and land, while simultaneously asserting the rhetorical principles of freedom, democracy, and equality under the law. When the Constitution was written 40% of the 55 delegates were white men that were slave owners. Those that werenÃ¢â¬â¢t, profited from the slave driven economy. In the preamble Ã¢â¬Å"We the PeopleÃ¢â¬ , whites were only people. The United States has only been a free county for the past four decades. Over the course of U.S. history, whites as a group have been unjustly enriched by an economic, political, and legal system of their own crafting. Today, African Americans and other Americans of color are racialize d Ã¢â¬Å"othersÃ¢â¬ and are not fully included in Ã¢â¬Å"We the People.Ã¢â¬ Until the late twentieth century, African Americans and other Americans of color had virtually no role (apart from a brief Reconstruction era) in making significant state and federal laws. Out of the 110 Justices that served on the Supreme Court, only two were Black. Recent studies have shown that only 2% of important legal officials in major state and federal courts are black. Whites in state and federal governments, have shaped and controlled the majorShow MoreRelatedLetter From A Birmingham Jail And Barack Obama s A More Perfect Union1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn Martin Luther King Jr. s Letter from a Birmingham Jail and Barack Obama s A More Perfect Union, both leaders discussed many of the same issues. The big theme in both was about race in the United States and becoming a much more unified nation despite our race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, etc. Both of these leaders also touched on t he fact that in order to solve the problems in this country, we must be unified and work together. One quote that really stood out to me in Letter ofRead MoreRace And Racism : The Purpose Of Race1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe purpose of race. Race and racism is always a sensitive subject to talk about in our modern-day society. It is something that is relatable to almost every single person in society. It affects some more than others. To understand the role that racism plays in our world we must first understand structural functionalism. In its simplest form, structural functionalism explains why society functions the way it does through social interaction. The view point of functionalism is that society is alwaysRead MoreRacism And The World s Greatest Issues Today Essay1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRacism continues to be one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest issues today. Many individuals are not aware of how much racism still exists in our schools, workplaces, and anywhere else where social lives are prevailing. It is obvious that racism is unacceptable as it was in the past but it sure has not disappeared. Racism very much exists everywhere and it is about time that individuals start thinking about solutions to this problem. Many people assume that it depends on if an individual was brought into theRead MoreIs The Mass Incarceration Of Blacks The New Jim Crow?1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIs the Mass Incarceration of Blacks the new Jim Crow? American has a legacy of the mistreatment and disenfranchisement of African Americans. The same bad treatment that many think only took place in the past is in fact still intact, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just presented in a new way. The mass incarceration of blacks in the Unites States can be attributed to the Ã¢â¬Å"racial hierarchyÃ¢â¬ that has always existed. The U.S contributes to about 5% of the worlds overall population, and about 25% of the worlds prison populationRead MoreRacism and Its Deep Roots in US History1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRacism and Its Deep Roots in US History Throughout US history, white Americans often viewed the other races (or coloreds) as inferior. Even though slavery had been abolished, laws and practices inhibited the fundamental rights African Americans were entitled to. Thus the mentality of racism and prejudice thoughts had persisted in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. The novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is set in Maycomb County, Alabama during the timeframe of the 1930s. Citizens of Maycomb County abide by aRead MoreEssay On Racism In America1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRacism in America Since President Barack Obama In 2009 the first African America president was elected. Barack Obama, an American politician who served as our United States president from 2009 until 2017. During his time there has been a controversial discussion about how racism has begun its last mile. Many question, if racism now is worse now than it was in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and has America entered a post-racial era? If so where does America stand on the race issue and what challenges have occurred inRead MoreRacial Injustice1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTHE CRIES AGAINST RACIAL INJUSTICE Racism is a bad thing, you find it everywhere in the schools, the clubs and also in the streets. Ãâ" Rasmus Casper The belief that one race by nature stands superior to another defines racism. Racism can be traced back to the beginning of civilization and has always existed as a horrible issue in our society. Many attempts and reforms have occurred in hopes of eliminating racism and much progress has been achieved. Yet, even after the emancipationRead MoreAfrican Americans : A Racially Equal Society1613 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSystemtic and Institutional Racism Margo Newkirk ENG 122: English Composition II Andrea Collins August 29, 2016 A racially equal society is one whereby individuals are not likely or more likely to receive certain benefits given that they belong to a particular racial group. This would be an ideal society given that the current American society is characterized by institutional and systemic racism. Institutional racism can be defined as institutional practices and other aspects of government suchRead MoreRacism And Racial Bias / Index797 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDecember 2014 John Blake http://www.cnn.com/2014/11/26/us/ferguson-racism-or-racial-bias/index.html?hpt=us_t2 Introduction In the article they have a study about race. What they do is they have an experiment with two photographs. They showed people one photograph of two white men fighting. One of them is unarmed and the other is holding a knife. Then they show another picture, which is one white man with a knife and an unarmed African American man. When they asked the people who was the armed man in theRead MoreWhiteness and Citizenship971 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCaptain AhabÃ¢â¬â¢s eulogy of whiteness shows that the word Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ implies more than a chromatic description. Ã¢â¬Å"WhiteÃ¢â¬ is an untenable perfection that has haunted the American psyche since colonial times. The idea of Ã¢â¬Å"white spiritual superiorityÃ¢â¬ can only be enforce by a terrorist politico-legal system, based on brutalizing the non-whites and creating a national fantasy. A national fantasy defined by Lauren Berlant as the means Ã¢â¬Å"to designate how national culture becomes local through the images, narrati ves
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Why do you think the Wound Management Nurse disagrees with betadine-soaked gauze packing as a dressing choice for Mr Jones's cavity wound? Answer: Wound management involves a successful assessment of the size, depth and appearance of the wound and its effective treatment (Stevens et al., 2014). This essay will focus on a wound management case study. Betadine is an antiseptic medicine made up of povidone-iodine used to treat minor skin infections and wounds (Ward Sr Corey, 2014). In the case scenario, Mr. Jones wound needs to be treated post a surgical lancing of a 12*11mm cutaneous abscess, formed due to action of MRSA bacteria. However, the nurse disagrees with the recommendation of the surgeon for using betadine for wound healing. A randomized controlled trial conducted among 22 subjects tested the outcomes of honey dressing and povdione-iodine dressings and measured the healing at an interval of 6 weeks. 7 subjects showed complete healing in honey dressing group compared to none in the betadine group (Gulati et al., 2014). Further, studies have shown conflicting results that suggest that betadine creates toxic effects on mucous membranes and large open wounds (Huynh et al., 2014). The toxic effects of betadine were demonstrated on epithelia HeLa cells an increase in toxicity was exhibited in the form of upregulation in apoptosis at concentrations that were low than the clinical doses (Sato et al., 2014). Drugs like heroin and morphine, among others although provides pain relief but they affect the immune system. Individuals who take drugs suffer from insufficient wound closure and are highly susceptible to infection. Heroin addicted patients suffer from infected non-healin wounds. Immunosuppression delays the recruitment of immune cells and further delaying wound closure and bacterial clearance (Abavare Abavare, 2012). Malnutrition causes metabolic alterations that affect wound healing. Vitamin C and A are required for collagen synthesis and epitheliazation, while zinc is necessary for cell mitosis and proliferation (Deer Stewart, 2016). Thus, from the above evidences it can be concluded that the nurse has displayed a good behavior in not adhering to the instructions of using betadine for wound healing owing to its toxic effects on tissues. References Abavare, L., Abavare, C. (2012). Wound botulism resulting from heroin abuse: can you recognize it?.Journal of Emergency Nursing,38(3), 301-303. Deer, T. R., Stewart, C. D. (2016). Wound healing. InAtlas of Implantable Therapies for Pain Management(pp. 89-92). Springer New York. Gulati, S., Qureshi, A., Srivastava, A., Kataria, K., Kumar, P., Ji, A. B. (2014). A prospective randomized study to compare the effectiveness of honey dressing vs. povidone iodine dressing in chronic wound healing.Indian Journal of Surgery,76(3), 193-198. Huynh, E., Tran, P., Pham, P., Hamood, A., Mitchell, K., Reid, T. W. (2014). 5% Betadine solution in not effective in inhibiting the growth of different Gram Negative and Gram Positive Pathogens in vitro.Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science,55(13), 5787-5787. Liu, J. X., Werner, J. A., Buza III, J. A., Kirsch, T., Zuckerman, J. D., Virk, M. S. (2017). Povidone-iodine solutions inhibit cell migration and survival of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and myoblasts.Spine. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002224 Sato, S., Miyake, M., Hazama, A., Omori, K. (2014). Povidone-iodine-induced cell death in cultured human epithelial HeLa cells and rat oral mucosal tissue.Drug and chemical toxicology,37(3), 268-275. Stevens, D. L., Bisno, A. L., Chambers, H. F., Dellinger, E. P., Goldstein, E. J., Gorbach, S. L., ... Wade, J. C. (2014). Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.Clinical infectious diseases,59(2), e10-e52. Ward Sr, W. G., Corey, R. M. (2014). To Wash or Not to Wash: That Is the Question: Commentary on an article by SJ van Meurs, MD, et al.:Selection of an Optimal Antiseptic Solution for Intraoperative Irrigation. An in Vitro Study.JBJS,96(4), e34.
Saturday, April 4, 2020
Sunday, March 8, 2020
break up of USSR essays The Soviet totalitarian regime held the many nations of the USSR together for almost three quarters of a century; the disintegration of this political system brought with it economic and political instability as well as civil wars in the separated states. Why did the collapse of the communist regime in the Soviet Union have such a negative impact? The states struggled to coordinate market mechanisms and private ownerships into their economies. Rebellions and radical reform leaders emerged and years of ethnic tensions and feelings of frustrated nationalism erupted in this new, open society that Gorbachev created. The anti-Soviet revolution in 1991 shattered the authoritarian grasp of the Soviet UnionÃ ¡s communist party. As the Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian leaders declared on Dec. 8th 1991 Ã ¡The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Ã ¡K is ceasing its existenceÃ ¡ (Mandelbaum 355). Mikhail Gorbachev ascended to power in 1985, bringing with him new ideas for radical changes in a struggling nation. Gorbachev demanded reforms however he did not anticipate the consequences. SocietyÃ ¡s dissatisfaction, dissolutionment and despair with the way communism operated resulted in change (Resnick 7). GorbachevÃ ¡s reforms included glasnost (openness), democratization, and perestroika (economic restructuring). Glasnost ended information restrictions and permitted public discussion about the past and present. Citizens who had been too terrified to speak broke their silence. This Ã ¡opennessÃ ¡ had a revolutionary impact on the Soviet Union for its citizens had lived Ã ¡under a regime that felt no hesitation in executing innocent Ã ¡K that best hope of surviving lay in Ã ¡K abandoning any thought of independent public activity Ã ¡K and withdrawing into oneÃ ¡s private worldÃ ¡ (Mandelbaum 6). Gorbachev recommended introducing a market economy that included privatization and democratic freedom. His economic perestroika restru...
Friday, February 21, 2020
The Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 - Essay Example The result was a collection of ideas based on the Scottish Youth Justice system, particularly the Scottish Reporter System. The Scottish Reporter System, introduced in the 1960s as part of the Children's Hearing System, is a system where those involved with youth who have offended or are at risk of offending make a referral requiring any services deemed necessary to put the child on the right track be provided. Those making referrals include police, schools, parents and social workers. Referrals are made to the Reporter, who then investigates the case and decides where it should go. "The Reporter must decide whether referrals should be discharged with no further action, whether they should be referred to a local authority social work department or whether the case should be referred to a children's hearing (Arthur 2004)." This is essentially what the U.K.'s referral order is, with just a few minor differences. The referral order was introduced in October 1999 as part of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. The order's primary aim is to keep first-time young offenders out of the court system and prevent them from re-offending. The Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 was a response to the White Paper, No More Excuses address that the Secretary of State presented to Parliament in 1997. The White Paper addressed specifically the issue of youth crime. "Today's young offenders can too easily become tomorrow's hardened criminals," Home Secretary Jack Straw said in a preface to the White Paper. "As a society we do ourselves no favours by failing to break the link between juvenile crime and disorder and the serial burglar of the future (Home Office 1997)." According to Straw, the general belief was that young offenders would "grow out of" their offending ways on their own. He said research showed otherwise and insisted something be done that could give young offenders that nudge in the right direction. Thus, the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 introduced the referral order, a proactive approach to addressing juvenile crime. The office of the Reporter in Scotland would be akin to the Court of the Magistrate in England, in that they are the ones who refer a child to the family-conference style meetings - Scotland's Children's Hearing and England's Youth Offender Panel (YOP). However, while the Reporter has other options, "Part III of the Powers of Criminal Courts (sentencing) Act 2000 provides that the referral order is to become the standards sentence imposed by the youth courts, or other magistrates court (Arthur 2004)." The referral order is a sentence given by the court referring 10- to 17-year-olds, who have pleaded guilty to a first offence, to a youth offending panel. In Scotland, the age of an offender referred to a Children's Hearing is eight to 16. The order requires the offender and his parents or carer to meet with the youth offender panel and map out a course of action for the youth to help him get on the right track. The court sets the length of time a referral should last, or the compliance period. The compliance period begins once the offender and chair of the panel have signed the contract. By law, the compliance period can be no shorter than three months and no longer than a year. In cases where the offender was previously convicted of a crime, the